Category Archives: Greco-Roman

Hypatia of Alexandria

Hypatia of Alexandria was one of the last pagan philosophers of antiquity.  Daughter of the mathematician Theon, she was active in Alexandria, Egypt, in the late 4th and early 5th Centuries AD  Her father, though not a major mathematician in his own right, edited and corrected the mathematical works of Euclid, and his edition was so accurate that it supplanted all other editions for centuries.  His daughter was talented in mathematics as well, and also was renowned as an astronomer.  Her main claim to fame, though was as a teacher of Neoplatonism.

A fair amount of background is necessary.  Alexandria, Egypt–founded, shockingly, by Alexander the Great in the 4th Century BC–had become one of the Mediterranean world’s great metropolises, second in size only to Rome itself, and second to none in its cultural influence.  Alexander, conqueror though he was, was also an idealist.  He had a dream of spreading Greek culture worldwide, taking the best of the cultures it encountered and blending it with Greek learning and culture.  Though he died young and his empire dissolved into several states led by his generals, Alexander’s dream lived on.  The various successor states to Alexander’s empire indeed spread Greek–that is, Hellenistic–culture throughout the ancient world.

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The Disenchantment of the World, Part 3: The One God Triumphs

In Hoc Signo

We’ve looked at ancient pagan religion and the changes brought about by ethical monotheism, as manifested by Judaism.  It is still necessary to determine how the change from the former to the latter (at least in the form of Christianity) occurred.  Ancient pagan society was in many ways extremely tolerant and pluralistic, things we tend to value.  If these were its features, what were its bugs, that it was replaced?

It is important, first of all, to acknowledge that much of the process of conversion was accomplished not because of any inherent attractiveness of the new faith or real or perceived problems with the old, but for baser reasons.  As Christians increased in numbers, and especially after Constantine’s Edict of Milan decriminalized it, many converted for reasons of social advancement.  In short, if you can’t beat ’em, join ’em.  Later, Theodosius I, with the Edict of Thessalonica, made Christianity (specifically its Nicene form) not only legal but official, the motivation for conversion became even greater.  In the latter days of the Roman Empire, the pressures to convert increased as pagan temples and schools were closed.  After this, in the Middle Ages, conversions were often proclaimed by fiat when the local tribal chieftain or king converted (e.g. Vladimir of Russia).

Despite all this, it is true that even before all of these other factors came into play, Christianity was spreading like wildfire in the early days of the Roman Empire, and doing so despite persecution and intolerance.  By the time of Constantine, the population was about ten per cent Christian–still a minority, but a relatively sizable one.  This indicates some appeal of Christianity, and some weakness in the old ways.  What were they?

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Swords of the Ancient Greeks

Here’s another essay of mine dealing with the weapons of ancient Greeks, written to compliment the essay on Roman swords.  I will be concentrating on the era from about the 7th to 4th centuries B. C.

Like the Romans, the Greeks used swords as backup weapons for close fighting in the later part of battle.  Spears were the main weapons used, and siege technology, though extant, was not as sophisticated as it became later in Roman times.  Still, the Greeks had a wider variety of swords than the Romans and had a higher regard for them in general.

Early Greek swords are similar to the gladii of the later Romans and the short swords used by the Celtic tribes.  These Greek swords were about 1 ½ feet in length and made originally of bronze, and later of iron.  Like the gladius, they were relatively simple and tapered outward.  Unlike the gladius, which tapered inward to a “waist” and then outward to the point, the Greek swords had a gradual taper from the pommel all the way to the point.  Also unlike the gladius, the Greek sword had a true crossguard, unlike the broad wooden cuplike pommel of the Roman sword.  The Greek swords thus resemble the cruciform medieval short swords.

These Greek swords were double-edged and could be used for cutting, stabbing, hacking, and slashing.  Later, the Greeks picked up various types of curved swords from the Persians and other eastern tribes.  At the time of the Battle of Thermopylae, when Leonidas and his three hundred Spartans held off the cream of the Persian army, such swords were in wide use.  The Spartans used a sword that was tip-heavy, single-edged, and curved slightly forward.  The crossguard projected only downward (toward the edged side of the blade).  This sword was mainly a slashing and hacking sword, and often had elaborately carved handles in the shape of birds or other creatures.  It looked much like the later swords known as falcatas or falchions, or like the modern-day kukri swords of the Gurkha regiments of the British army.

The Greeks also had a sword much like a modern saber, although the Greek version was somewhat shorter.  This was used to some extent by horsemen, although the preferred weapon of cavalrymen was the lance or the bow.  Keep in mind that this is almost a millennium before the introduction of the stirrup to the West.  Thus, swordplay from horseback was limited, as was thrusting with lances (which were usually thrown), since the rider would be in danger of being unhorsed.  Some such fighting did occur, of course, but it was less common than in the Middle Ages.  As noted, bows were sometimes used from  horseback, but this style of fighting was more characteristic of the Persians and the related Parthians and Scythians. 

Swords used by the Greeks, and by ancients in general, were much shorter than the giant two-handed swords used in the Middle Ages.  First, even hoplites, the most heavily armored soldiers of antiquity, were far more lightly covered than even a bankrupt knight.  There was thus much less for the foe to cut through.  Second, steel (as opposed to mere iron) was not perfected and commonly diffused for several centuries.  Thus, the technological limitations made really efficient long swords hard to make and brittle and ineffective for combat use.  This is why swordplay was not developed to the art form it later became in Renaissance Europe—the relatively primitive technology made it counterproductive to do much more than simple stabs, slashes, and parries, and the spear-centered strategy left the sword in a position of secondary importance anyway.  Thus in a TV show such as Xena: Warrior Princess, the general size and shape of the swords depicted is accurate, and the battered, nicked, rusty blade of the heroine rings true, but the flashy martial-arts style of combat shown is far from anything the Greeks and Romans ever did!


Swords of the Romans

I wrote this essay awhile back as a tie-in to my review of the movie Gladiator.  Hopefully it will be of interest for the history buffs out there.

This essay is a brief discussion of the swords used by the Romans of the early Imperial period, especially as shown in the movie Gladiator.  The accuracy shown there, by the way, is very high.  Now, though, let us consider in greater detail Roman swords and their uses.

The basic sword used by the Romans was the gladius.  This was a one-handed shortsword, the blade being about  1—1 1/2 feet long, and the handle about 10 inches in length.  The blade narrowed slightly towards the middle, and broadened again near the point. The crossguard was a single piece of rounded wood about the same width as the blade.  Thus in appearance the gladius is more daggerlike than the cruciform swords with which we are more familiar.  As should be obvious, “gladiator” derives from gladius, meaning literally “swordsman”.  Also, the gladiolus flower takes its name from this, the name meaning literally “little sword”, which, indeed, is the shape of the leaves. Read the rest of this entry