Monthly Archives: July 2011
Here’s another essay of mine dealing with the weapons of ancient Greeks, written to compliment the essay on Roman swords. I will be concentrating on the era from about the 7th to 4th centuries B. C.
Like the Romans, the Greeks used swords as backup weapons for close fighting in the later part of battle. Spears were the main weapons used, and siege technology, though extant, was not as sophisticated as it became later in Roman times. Still, the Greeks had a wider variety of swords than the Romans and had a higher regard for them in general.
Early Greek swords are similar to the gladii of the later Romans and the short swords used by the Celtic tribes. These Greek swords were about 1 ½ feet in length and made originally of bronze, and later of iron. Like the gladius, they were relatively simple and tapered outward. Unlike the gladius, which tapered inward to a “waist” and then outward to the point, the Greek swords had a gradual taper from the pommel all the way to the point. Also unlike the gladius, the Greek sword had a true crossguard, unlike the broad wooden cuplike pommel of the Roman sword. The Greek swords thus resemble the cruciform medieval short swords.
These Greek swords were double-edged and could be used for cutting, stabbing, hacking, and slashing. Later, the Greeks picked up various types of curved swords from the Persians and other eastern tribes. At the time of the Battle of Thermopylae, when Leonidas and his three hundred Spartans held off the cream of the Persian army, such swords were in wide use. The Spartans used a sword that was tip-heavy, single-edged, and curved slightly forward. The crossguard projected only downward (toward the edged side of the blade). This sword was mainly a slashing and hacking sword, and often had elaborately carved handles in the shape of birds or other creatures. It looked much like the later swords known as falcatas or falchions, or like the modern-day kukri swords of the Gurkha regiments of the British army.
The Greeks also had a sword much like a modern saber, although the Greek version was somewhat shorter. This was used to some extent by horsemen, although the preferred weapon of cavalrymen was the lance or the bow. Keep in mind that this is almost a millennium before the introduction of the stirrup to the West. Thus, swordplay from horseback was limited, as was thrusting with lances (which were usually thrown), since the rider would be in danger of being unhorsed. Some such fighting did occur, of course, but it was less common than in the Middle Ages. As noted, bows were sometimes used from horseback, but this style of fighting was more characteristic of the Persians and the related Parthians and Scythians.
Swords used by the Greeks, and by ancients in general, were much shorter than the giant two-handed swords used in the Middle Ages. First, even hoplites, the most heavily armored soldiers of antiquity, were far more lightly covered than even a bankrupt knight. There was thus much less for the foe to cut through. Second, steel (as opposed to mere iron) was not perfected and commonly diffused for several centuries. Thus, the technological limitations made really efficient long swords hard to make and brittle and ineffective for combat use. This is why swordplay was not developed to the art form it later became in Renaissance Europe—the relatively primitive technology made it counterproductive to do much more than simple stabs, slashes, and parries, and the spear-centered strategy left the sword in a position of secondary importance anyway. Thus in a TV show such as Xena: Warrior Princess, the general size and shape of the swords depicted is accurate, and the battered, nicked, rusty blade of the heroine rings true, but the flashy martial-arts style of combat shown is far from anything the Greeks and Romans ever did!
I wrote this essay awhile back as a tie-in to my review of the movie Gladiator. Hopefully it will be of interest for the history buffs out there.
This essay is a brief discussion of the swords used by the Romans of the early Imperial period, especially as shown in the movie Gladiator. The accuracy shown there, by the way, is very high. Now, though, let us consider in greater detail Roman swords and their uses.
The basic sword used by the Romans was the gladius. This was a one-handed shortsword, the blade being about 1—1 1/2 feet long, and the handle about 10 inches in length. The blade narrowed slightly towards the middle, and broadened again near the point. The crossguard was a single piece of rounded wood about the same width as the blade. Thus in appearance the gladius is more daggerlike than the cruciform swords with which we are more familiar. As should be obvious, “gladiator” derives from gladius, meaning literally “swordsman”. Also, the gladiolus flower takes its name from this, the name meaning literally “little sword”, which, indeed, is the shape of the leaves. Read the rest of this entry
A few years back, I wrote some reviews/commentaries on various movies and books for a friends now sadly defunct website. Some of them I’ve posted to my LiveJournal since then. I was looking back at some of them, and I’ve decided that a few may do well to be here, as well, with appropriate revision. The movies are a bit out of date (I wrote this review about ten years ago), but I hope this review (and any other old ones I may post in the future) will be entertaining and maybe even enlightening. I also plan to writes some new reviews–I have in mind particularly a series on Pixar’s films. For now, enjoy this review of the Ridley Scott/Russell Crowe movie Gladiator.
The Noblest Roman of Them All
That is how Shakespeare referred to Brutus, but it could apply equally to Maximus, the lead character of Ridley Scott’s brilliant move Gladiator. This movie is many things: an epic of the variety hardly seen these past forty years (with the occasional exception, such as Braveheart); an action/adventure move; a historical drama; the tragedy of a good man wronged. What I would like to focus on here, however, is the way in which it is almost unique among epic movies, present or past, in catching the flavor of Roman virtue and vice at their highest (and lowest). Read the rest of this entry
Usually I’ve been posting music on the weekends, in emulation of Arturo at Reditus and Owen at The Ubiquarian, but I thought this might be a good way to start a new workweek (though I’m not working until school starts back in August–you get the picture, anyway).
Do not go by revelation;
Do not go by tradition;
Do not go by hearsay;
Do not go on the authority of sacred texts;
Do not go on the grounds of pure logic;
Do not go by a view that seems rational;
Do not go by reflecting on mere appearances;
Do not go along with a considered view because you agree with it;
Do not go along on the grounds that the person is competent;
Do not go along because “the recluse is our teacher.”
Kalamas, when you yourselves know: These things are unwholesome, these things are blameworthy; these things are censured by the wise; and when undertaken and observed, these things lead to harm and ill, abandon them…
Kalamas, when you know for yourselves: These are wholesome; these things are not blameworthy; these things are praised by the wise; undertaken and observed, these things lead to benefit and happiness, having undertaken them, abide in them.
–Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, Kalama Sutta - Angutarra Nikaya 3.65
Having established the series of posts on this topic, I’m shortening “Decline and Fall of Television” as shown above and going from Arabic to Roman numerals to give a better feel. Just so you know.
In the last installment, I discussed the issue of bandwidth. The idea is that television programming has evolved from three major commercial networks with about twenty hours of broadcasting daily, and only about three of those dedicated to original programming to dozens of networks which broadcast 24/7. Any creative endeavor is going to produce more mediocrity or outright junk than quality product; thus today, with much more time to be filled and the amount of outstanding creativity being probably no more than it ever was (i.e., in short supply), TV is going to produce and air more junk than ever before. In this post I want to extend this notion, from junk as such to entire junk genres. Read the rest of this entry